Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever infection (EHF) triggered by the deadly and still mystical Ebola Virus has came to be a globally issue because its discovery in 1976. The Ebola outbreaks in the African continent have alarmed experts, clinical specialists, and the federal government as well as volunteer organizations so that teams have actually been deployed to check as well as regulate the situation. The main concern of this paper is to present vital information that will establish the fact that Ebola virus infection can be transmitted by direct contact with infected animals. Bulk of this paper is an analysis of the nature of Ebola virus and its transmission from animals to humans contained in the first 4 sections. A section was also provided for the information on the Ebola break outs and also reported occurrence, arranged chronologically using CDC and also WHO recent reports and reality sheets. The last two areas were designated for the EHF signs and symptoms, diagnosis as well as lab examinations info. A section was also offered recent update on the Ebola virus infection.
Ebola virus is a member of Filoviridae, a family of RNA virus. Ebola was named after the river in the Republic Congo, Ebola, where it was discovered. It is among the 18 recognized infections that trigger viral hemorrhagic fever disorder (J. King). As backgrounder, RNA infections like the Ebola infection are thought about as zoonoses, suggesting they are animal-borne, that cause damage to the microvasculature leading to an increased vascular permeability. The family Filoviridae is has the largest genome of the order Mononegavirales. Filo (in Filoviridae) is Latin word for worm (E. Burton). Members of this family appear to be thread-like and look like worms when seen under a microscopic lense (Oldstone 134). Various other descriptions of its form include that of pigtails, snakes, that of a “shepherd’s crook” and form a “U” shape when bended (www.geocites.com). Studies made on the virions disclosed that they are composed of helical nucleocapsid and are of 80nm diameter (CDC, 2000). Ebola virus and its co-member Mamburg virus were re-classified from Rhabdoviridae family to Filoviridae (CDC).
Ebola virus has three subtypes: the Ebola-Zaire, the Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Ivory Coast as well as Ebola-Reston all which were named after the streams from which they were discovered (WHO, 2004). Zaire was said to be one of the most lethal of the four strains of Ebola. It was the very first tape-recorded stress of Ebola to have actually impacted human beings which was recorded in October 1976. Zaire triggers 80 % -90 % death rate on its human targets (E. Burton). Ebola Sudan, as compared to Zaire is much less fatal with simply 50 % -60 % casualty price. Ebola Tai or the Ebola Ivory Shore was found in 1994 which was discovered to have infected and also gotten rid of chimpanzees (L. Garette). The previously subtype seems to have an Oriental source given that it was determined and also discovered from the batch of monkeys delivered from the Philippines (geocites.com). The laboratory experiment done in Reston, Virginia revealed that the said strain can be transmitted by air and has not yet been proven to be fatal not dangerous to humans (Peterson, et. al).
Since the Ebola virus wased initially found, scientists and health employees right away separated the contaminated hosts. The seclusion was promptly made for the purpose of searching for the possible cure of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever. When it was fist discovered in a cotton factory, everything in the factory, including bat droppings were collected and brought in laboratories for studies. The insects as well as every living thing included in the manufacturing plant were also captured for research study. This step was however disadvantageous as to the experts’ search for the answer to a vital question: where is the virus’ reservoir?
Based upon the beginning of the infected mammals, the experts thought that it could have been a citizen of the African jungles and also in the West Pacific area. The scientists’ theory was that it was not the non-human primates or the humans who are the source of the infection as they appear to be just being only infected as a result of transmission from the genuine tank.
Bats, which were also caught from the cotton manufacturing plant, were found to have also been infected by the virus. The laboratory tests however revealed that bats, unlike humans and also primates victims do not die of the infection. Studies at this point regarding the organic reservoir of the Ebola infection were until now in vain. Similar to human infection, studies revealed that it was due to the transmission of the virus by direct contact lense with infected gorillas, chimpanzees, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found dead in the rainforest.
The well-known disease caused by Ebola virus is the Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF), which baseding on specialists is frequently deadly in both human as well as non-human primate targets according to Centers for Condition Command and also Prevention. The World Health and wellness Organization stated a 50 % -90 % fatality price on sufferers. In the Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Fact Sheet No. 103 released by the Globe Wellness Organization on May 2004, the following info was offered about the transmission of Ebola:
a.The Ebola virus can be transmitted by direct contact with the blood, secretions, organs or various other physical liquids of contaminated patients.
b.Direct contact with the corps of infected individuals can additionally be a feasible ways of Ebola transmission.
c.Handling of infected animals, both dead and also active could additionally send the infection. The claimed situation was true and was in fact recorded on the Reston stress where analysts which took care of the infected apes were likewise contaminated.
d.Inadequate safety measures while treating contaminated people could additionally be a means of Ebola transmission. THAT states that those wellness employees which have frequent and also direct contact with the individuals have the possibility of being also contaminated. Unclean medical facility practices such as using unsterilized syringes can likewise spread out the virus.
African-derived Filovirus infections are stated to have actually been sent via the physical body fluids of the host such as blood and saliva (Master, 2007). “The results of tests as well as researches on non-human primates exposed that EBO-Z (Ebola Zaire) and EBO-S (Ebola Sudan) were potentially transferred with the mucous membrane layers, conjunctiva, vocal cords and also intestinal surfaces, small breaks in the skin, and, at least experimentally, by aerosol,” claims King. Master also discussed in his discussion the instance of infected patients that were found to have Ebola virus in ONE HUNDRED % of their oral secretions. For this, the author believes that dental secretions can also be a means of the viral transmission.
Confirmed cases of Ebola HF have been reported in the Autonomous Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Sudan, the Ivory Shore, and also Uganda (www.webmd.com). Ebola has actually been found to be the source of well-documented episodes of intense human hemorrhagic fever, with 88 % mortality rates in the locations of Yambuku, Democratic Republic of the Congo (King, 2007). Yambuku is a small village in Northern Zaire from which Ebola outbreak began in 1976 (CDC 5-8). It was in a little town run by Belgian nuns where the episode started tape-recording 318 infected professionals (Garrett 100-105). Gabon was struck next off, with many occurrences in between 1994 and 1996 with about 57 % fatalities according to the CDC record. There were additionally instances of infection found in Liberia, in England and also in the Philippines although there were no guides of fatalities.
Baseding on Pennsylvania Department of Wellness, target of Ebola Hemorrhagic High temperature might generally experience aching neck, muscle aches and also weak point. At the beginning of the disease, the patient may present with fever and severe constitutional signs and symptoms (King, 2007). Recorded cases also include symptoms such as maculopapular breakouts that are conveniently acknowledged on white skin. At the development phase of the infection, contaminated patients experience an irritation of the neck medically termed as Diarrhea Pharyngitis and also inflammation of the mucous membranes in the eyes referred to as Conjunctivitis, in addition to vomiting and abdominal pains. At the late stage of the disease, hippocratic facies occur (Leroy, E.M., et. al). As a result of the inability of blood clotting, internal blood loss takes place. Bleeding begin with shot websites, on the mucous membranes, right into the gastrointestinal tracts, on the skin and internal organs. Myocarditis and pulmonary edema additionally are seen in the later stages of the disease (Pennsylvania Department of Health).
Because some of the early symptoms of EHF are similar to symptoms of other diseases such as fever and ague and typhoid high temperature, medical specialists agree that EHF medical diagnosis is somewhat hard. For this reason, experts need to perform several lab examinations to a patient presumed on having contaminated by EHF to guarantee results. Such research laboratory examinations consist of blood movie exam and also stool society. Various other extensive examinations include the following:
- a.ELISA (Antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Testing-a serologic testing that is done after few days of the onset of symptoms. Follow-up tests are likewise done using immunoglobulin M-capture ELISA, that is conducted using EBO-Z viral antigens. Such antigens are drawned from cells that are contaminated by Vero E6 (A. Takada, 1988). Also done as ELISA examination is the immunoglobulin G (IgG) that makes use of detergent-extracted Ebola antigens. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) as well as virus isolation are done on impaired patients. The above tests, baseding on CDC are nonetheless considered high-risk procedures as well as are done just on high-containment research laboratories.
- b.Indirect immunofluorescence test – it is one of the most common test done on EHF patients which do not have specificity. Therefore, various other tests such as the ELISA tests were as a result developed.
- c.Electron microscopy – the purpose of this examination is mainly to recognize filoviruses in tissue of patients. However, constraints of the outcomes of this testing approach have been reevaluated when human episodes in other locations took place.
- d.Immunohistochemical test – it is a much more particular testing method used by medical experts for diagnosis and surveillance. This test is done on skin of diseased patients after formalin has been applied.
EHF has been just one of the largest fear of people specifically in Africa where it the many preliminary break outs happened. Nonetheless, recent records stated EHF is not only harmful and fatal to humans but also to primates, especially to gorillas. In the report releases by the National Geographic News on December 07, 2006, the virus has been “marching steadily across western and central Africa, rubbing out greater than 90 percent of the gorillas in its path as well as threatening the varieties with termination” (K. Ravilious). The report made by a team of scientists and also researchers keeping track of the spread of Ebola infection on gorilla population, the team estimated that there had to do with 5,000 gorillas gotten rid of by the virus given that 1995 in Lossi Refuge alone (Scientific research Journal). What stays covert to researchers is the organic tank of the Ebola virus, although there have been theory that points to fruit bats, which were also checked for the infection but did not go out of it.
Researches on possible remedy for EHF are a proceeding effort. In 2003, the National Institute of Allergy and Contagious Illness (NIAID) launched main reports of its human trial of the vaccine designed to prevent Ebola virus infection. The report said that the experimental vaccine, a type called a DNA vaccine, “resembles various other investigational injections that hold promise for regulating such illness as AIDS, flu, fever and ague as well as hepatitis” (NIAID, 2003). The experiment was carried out at the NIH Professional Center in Bethesda, on 27 volunteers, ages 18-44. Volunteers injected with the test vaccine thrice in two months are expected not to be exposed with Ebola virus.
(H. Korschun). The scientists reported that “a mouse strain of Ebola virus adapted from a human strain induces a strong T-cell immune response” (Emory Report, April 23, 2001). Such searching for is contrary to the previous hypothesis that infected patients die of the Ebola virus as a result of a virus-caused suppression of the immune system. The scientists’ verdict was that Ebola infection has fast deadly reaction in the experimented computer mice that despite the existence of T-cells, the immune feedback of infected host could not deal up with the fatal infection.
Making use of important information from CDC and also THAT states as well as reality sheets, we were able to assess the nature of the fantastic Ebola infection, how it is transmitted to animals and to humans how it replicates and consequently damages the system of the infected patient. Having information on the Ebola outbreaks, from its discovery to the most recent reported case, we were able to have the suggestion that Ebola virus is unlike malaria and typhoid high temperature viruses although comparable symptoms are being experienced by patients. The uniqueness of the virus lies on that not simply humans are being contaminated but additionally non-human primates like apes as well as gorillas. Although the natural reservoir of the infection stays unknown, experiments and also tests of Ebola injection deal hope for the world particularly the African continent which has been seriously influenced. The researches and experiments continue and the world wishes to find favorable lead to the near future.